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1418 times back I've 2007 Nissan Quest exact same ticking and hard to start complications as observed in many of the remarks higher than re: the timing chain. Have not taken in yet as this just begun a few days in the past. I assume it is currently time following undertaking this analysis. UGHH Roman B. claimed

1699 days ago I have a 2009 Nissan that has been extremely properly cared for. Operate Thoroughly synthetic in it, modify each 5k-6k. Clean up for a whistle. Just started off building this sounds weekly as well as a half in the past. This is distressing. Jason T. claimed

1265 times ago 2007 Frontier PU. Learned chain guides needed to get replaced Once i took truck in for support around the cross contamination trouble Together with the radiator/transmission (they'd to exchange the transmission and radiator).

1067 days back I would like Nissan to purchase the failed parts and at the very least break up the cost for installation. If I were a substantial company like them, I feel this is the earn gain Resolution. Mstter of point Nissan must give customers the components plus a Check out to hsve repairs done by The shoppers personal mechanic or for us get it done oneself types let's place some cash in our pocket for becoming faithful and continuing prospects.

1036 days back My 04 maxima timing chain went, nonetheless beneath 100k on the odm, With all of the vehicles I've owned .....This is BS ,The entire timing technique in its self need to very last well previous the lifetime of the auto.I'm willing to indicator to a class motion accommodate. Michael W. stated

1552 times in the past My 04 Nissan Quest is presently with the dealer for substitution of all timing chains. The van only has 87000 miles and continues to be perfectly maintained. I desire to hitch this course action accommodate as timing chains shouldn't want substitute at such low mileage. jacob b. reported

1339 times ago So it seems like the situation was dismissed....Is that this true? Almost nothing can be achieved? I have an 08 Maxima with only 45K miles on it and they are saying I need a completely new timing belt--$1600. Kim C. reported

957 times in the past I have a 2006 Nissan Altima SE-R, purchased Utilized in 2012. It has about 120k miles on it as well as timing chain is screwed. I even now owe a lot of money on it and will't afford to pay for to repair it. Desire I'd recognised ahead of I bought. Jose G. explained

1292 times back very same difficulties codes go on improve elements codes go on and off. Have sounds as others in addition brakes and abs program acts up. It acts like computer provides a brain tumor. When cam sensor is on dies intermittent or will not get started. Also has slippage in 4 wheel generate. a knockout post michael p. reported

1432 times ago I have a 2005 Nissan quest by using a three.5, I'm also a gm tech(grasp ASE certified and silver degree gm Qualified) if gm can realize a timing chain challenge with there three.six and creat a Distinctive coverage to go over the repairs then why won't Nissan, Actually took it to your Nissan dealer for this issue. I am one hundred% confident which they eradicated the access protect, compressed the tensioner and slid the chain information back to where it should be and reinstalled deal with and tensioner, I am not freakin dumb, a series sounds isn't going to disappear immediately after incorporating one quart of oil, because the Nissan supplier informed me the oil necessary to be modified and was a person quart lower.

1574 times in the past Took my '05 Pathfinder for the Nissan Dealership a result of the whining seem. I pretended not to know nearly anything about this plus the Service Manager gave some cautiously worded response to my timing chain problem, but then ongoing to say they didn't advise or not it's improved.

1438 times back I've a Nissan Pathfinder 2005 LT. On initiate with the motor vehicle it check my blog makes a loud rattling noise within the timing chain which works away eventually or if I re-start out the vehicle. Sean S. mentioned

1427 times in the past 2007 Pathfinder with timing chain repair carried out underneath 3rd party extended guarantee. To this point have prevented this auto from completely destroying alone by catching all of It truly is "troubles" ahead of they self destruct. Re-routing cooling find more information strains to by-pass radiator all with each other Therefore steering clear of the destruction of my transmission and radiator.

1406 times in the past 2006 Pathfinder. To start with, I really like my Pathfinder. Wholly handy auto. At about 60K it began producing the telltale whine on start up. Motor vehicle now has about 95K along with the sound has not intensified.

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Secondly, if the grid may be very soiled, then likelihood is It really is coal fired, or the vast majority coal fired. Where circumstance electrical power is discarded overnight. EVs charged on off peak are utilizing electricity that will normally be discarded, so These are creating no further carbon emissions due to their use.

The second challenge is getting taken abruptly from the dildos-on-wheels who Believe 20mph suggests 35mph (as well as their numbers involve cyclists along with assholes in cars).

The condition isn't dependable Grown ups with sufficient recognition to travel properly when there are Other individuals about, it is the idiots who spoil almost everything for the rest of us. (See also: the vast majority of gun homeowners while in the United states, versus spree-shooters and adhere-up artists.)

While in the US This is often how household insurance policy functions. Things such as how considerably you're from a fire hydrant (h2o for fireplace trucks) is factored into the rates.

During the US insurance plan rates are largely determined by facts analytics. But they are also state primarily based and there is a large amount of adjustments for various social objectives based upon which condition you reside in. But All round This is a knowledge driven method.

one) Punishment is usually a subjective/moral challenge I am undecided the way to evaluate. As for deterrence - well it clearly didn't work on the offenders.

In the EVE On the net circles I had been Component of back again in the day, following one particular update to the sport, we received this phrase from a common typo around the discussion boards: "Rouge drones are above-powdered."

Wow, I've paid out substantially greater than that for just a bicycle. But then, I hope way much more than a 12 months of really dependable company from my vehicles, And that i hope the operating expenses to be below 5p/kilometre.

three) not within the news Considerably but much nearer to property, Portugal also has a wildfire challenge continue to ongoing. I suspect lots of ares that was "a little bit dry and warm" presently are. Unless They're astonishingly soaked now. AFAIK predicted "weather settles to new typical" timeframe is around a century.

I don't agree with them on hypersonic flight as I think supersonic flight is a lot more possible. Also, I am a little much more ambivalent about autonomous flight.

Rich persons normally do the exact click for source opposite But it's actually not particularly causal a lot more hen and egg. Producing alternatives such as this certainly is effective versus soaring from poverty but additionally it's actually not like they often have selections The other factor that often takes place with bad individuals is that they normally trade cash for danger , normally in approaches they do not even recognize Shopping for and driving an old car or truck is very dangerous in comparison to a different just one.

I might be fairly of the edge circumstance but from my activities on various automobile message boards Get the facts you will discover a substantial quantity of individuals like me who have a reasonably short commute but elect to own a athletics vehicle as a result of enjoyment it provides.

As long as they do not know that the choice among divorce and insignificant lie is in fact a selection between divorce and jail time* you win.

The sexual offences act 2003 seems to have look at here had a giant result also on people today getting sentenced. Heaps a lot more stats in this article:

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61 .segalbmessa rehto yb detceffa eb ro tceffa nac yeht taht os retirw sti dna koob eht sessessop hcihw rewop eht tuoba gnihtyna yas ot mih eriuqer ton seod hcaorppa esohw ,adirreD morf trapa yllatnemadnuf mih stes taht txet eht fo msilativ elbahcneuqnu siht si ti taht dna ,naehcszteiN si ti sa nainosgreB hcum sa si 'msilarutcurtstsop` sih taht degdelwonkca eb ot sah ti neht ,)!hcnerF ton ,naciremA si ecnanevorp esohw mret a( 'tsilarutcurtstsop` a si ezueleD fI .noitaterpretni reven ,gnilbmessa dna gnitnevni eb ylno ezueleD rof nac ereht ,denrecnoc si koob eht erehW .'snoitadnuof` s'txet eht senimrednu taht ± ecrof sti stimsnart ti sa neve flesti rof etaerc tonnac ti eno suht dna ,kaeps ot os ,ytiroiretxe/ytiroiretna gnilbane sti ,ecnegreme s'txet eht fo non auq enis eht si noitalumis fo rewop eht ezueleD rof esuaceb ± 'edistuo` s'txet eht morf nward ,msilativ ro ytilativ siht si ti dna ,koob ro txet eht fo msilativ ro ytilativ a fo gnitisop eht fo mrof eht sekat soduesP naehcszteiN eht fo lasuopse s'ezueleD ,sdrow rehto nI .stceffe etaerc ot rewop eht sa yliramirp soduesP fo rewop eht sdrager ,raelc ekam snes ud euqigoL morf segassap yek lareves sa ,ezueleD ,erutcurts s'txet eht ni ylbacirtxeni degdol ytisneporp ro elpicnirp gnisopmoced a sa rewop siht sweiv adirreD erehW .s'adirreD morf yltnacifingis sreffid taht ti fo tnuocca na sevig eh dna ,evitatpo naht rehtar evitisop si soduesP fo rewop eht fo lasuopse siH .

{Ew eveihca siht elpirt evitcejbo yb gnirevocsid eht tnaveler serutaef ni eht (ylbissop etinifni) ecaps fo laitaps sretlif yb gnizimitpo a nigram-noitazimixam noiretirc. Daetsni fo gnisopmi a retlif knab htiw denifederp retlif sepyt dna sretemarap, ew tel eht ledom erugif tuo hcihw tes fo sretlif si lamitpo rof ssalc noitarapes. Ot od os, ew ylmodnar etareneg laitaps retlif sknab dna esu na evitca-tes noiretirc ot knar eht etadidnac serutaef gnidrocca ot rieht stifeneb ot nigram noitazimixam (dna, suht, ot noitazilareneg) fi dedda ot eht ledom. Stnemirepxe no lartcepsitlum yrev hgih laitaps noituloser (RHV) dna lartcepsrepyh RHV atad wohs taht eht desoporp mhtirogla, hcihw si esraps dna raenil, sdnif evitanimircsid serutaef dna seveihca ta tsael eht emas secnamrofrep sa sledom gnisu a egral retlif knab denifed ni ecnavda yb roirp egdelwonk. XeTbiB : @posting.dohtem detneserp eht ot derapmoc ylisae eb nac dna noitalumrof MEB/MEF delpuoc rieht rof kramhcneb a sa )0991( ikcubarP dna ffrotsE nov yb deiduts neeb evah selpmaxe esehT .detneserp era selpmaxe laciremun eerht erudecorp devired eht fo ytilibacilppa dna ycarucca eht etartsnomed oT

{)26( .niponolK a rof llac ot enoemos sesuac hcihw ,aijcalappA morf s'eh stimda dna regnittiaT hcum oot sknird rehtona dna kcatta yteixna na sah syob eht fo enO .nep lliuq a htiw ti rof kcehc a setirw ohw ,swodahs eht ni gnikrul reddib tsehgih eht ot ti slles neht ,dioraloP eht sedih reidiD ,deyalp si llikrevO egrU ,tuo dednah era spop -illol ,sdrawkcab denoitisop era spac llabesab ,sadumreB retfa sodeepS :tcejbus gnidnuorg on htiw stcejbo dna snoitca tsuj period ereht hguoht sa ,desu si eciov evissap eht ,netfO .|)3±22 :4991( .ecudorper ot su rof serutseg esoporp naht rehtar ytienegoreteh ni depoleved eb ot sngis time ot elba era dna ,'em htiw od` ot su llet ohw esoht period srehcaet ylno ruO .'od I sa oD` :yas ohw esoht morf gnihton nrael eW .noitacude lla tuoba ± lataf gnihtemos osla tub ± suoroma gnihtemos si ereht taht snaem hcihw ,sngis htiw ytirailimaf lacitcarp deriuqca ro etanni na si ereht :snrael enoemos woh yas ot tluciffid os si ti yhw si tahT .sngis sa ecitcarp ni remrof eht gnipsarg yb ylno htiw laed ot nrael ew hcihw ,evaw eht fo stnemevom eht ot noitaler on raeb dnas eht no ecud -orper ew hcihw rotcurtsni gnimmiws eht fo stnemevom eht ,ralucitrap ni ,evaw eht fo taht elbmeser ton seod remmiws eht fo tnemevom ehT .ngis eht fo taht 'elbmeser` ton seod esnopser eht fo tnemevom eht ecnis ,ticile yeht esnopser eht ni ,yllanif ;)aedI na( rewop lautirips ro larutan a setanracni dna ,ti sraeb hcihw tcejbo eht fo stimil eht nihtiw 'tcejbo` rehtona spolevne ngis a ecnis ,sevlesmeht ni ,yldnoces ;)erugluf( sehsalf ngis eht hcihw neewteb seitilaer etarapsid ro ezis fo sredro owt erew ereht hguoht sa ,level tnereffid a no ylirassecen si ti dna ,meht stime ro sraeb hcihw tcejbo eht ni ,tsrif :syaw eerht tsael ta ni ytienegoreteh evlovni sngiS :noititepeR dna ecnereffiD ni sa ylrae sa deraeppa noisicerp sihT .)03 :9891( lla ta elbissop ngis a sekam tahw fo traeh eht ta si ytienegoreteh ,ecrieP rof sa ,ezueleD roF .lareneg ni stxet yraretil ot sehcaorppa s'irattauG dna s'ezueleD rof snoitacilpmi tcerid evah yehT .'msiciripme latnednec -snart` dellac-os s'ezueleD fo noitadnuof eht ta si hcihw ,lacihposolihp -erp eht dellac osla irattauG dna ezueleD taht ecaps a ni flesti thguoht dna ecneirepxe fo ytilibissop fo noitidnoc eht period yehT .reifingis ro noitarran ,egaugnal yna fo ,rettam demrof yna fo ecnaraeppa eht erofeb evitca era 'noisserpxe fo stiart` esehT .emit erup nihtiw lautriv eht dna lautca eht neewteb egnahcxe suounitnoc a setutitsnoc taht emit fo tcepsa cificeps a ni ,gnimoceb ni rettam evisserpxe na fo noitanibmoc cificeps a spolevne ngis hcaE .|) s 1 t 0 ( emit noitalumis regnol a rof hcaorppa tnemele etinif yradnuob delacs /tnemele etinif delpuoc a fo stluser eht stciped 8 .giF .sedis lellarap sah niamod etinifni-imes eht esuaceb ,ecafretni tnemele etinif yradnuob delacs/tnemele etinif eht ot ecnatsid etinifni ni seil noitamrofsnart yradnuob delacs eht rof ertnec gnilacs eht taht ecitoN .A tniop noitavresbo fo tnemecalpsid lacitrev eht rof sa llew sa ,tnemecalpsid latnoziroh detaluclac eht rof tnemeerga tnellecxe wohs stluser ehT .dohtem EFBS/EF delpuoc a dna ,dohtem EB/EF delpuoc a htiw detaluclac , s 41.0 t 0 lavretni emit a rof ,A tniop fo tnemecalpsid eht swohs 7 .giF|)87 :4991( .sesehtnys evissap eht fo niamod eht fo sisab eht mrof suht ± stneserp elbairav eseht ;seugitaf ,snoitcafsitas ,snoitpmuserp ,snoisneterp ,snoitalpmetnoc ,snoitcartnoc eseht ± desopmoc era ew hcihw fo stibah fo sdnasuoht esehT :setirw ezueleD .no os dna rewop ,ytilaudividni ,fles ,efil fo mrof dehctob a ot dael yeht ecnis ,ssenlli ruo fo esuac eht sa denifed eb nac egaugnal fo sesu niatrec ,suhT .)91 :4991 ezueleD( 'taeper ew ,rebmemer ton od ew tahw` hcihw ni noitidnoc eht gnicudorp ,)lasrevinu 951 efiL rof erutaretiL fo sesubA dna sesU eht nO eht taht eugra irattauG dna ezueleD ,daetsnI .rucco ot dias si thguoht fo ytienatnops dellac-os eht erehw ytiroirefni fo mrof a elpmis oot dna ,'laudividni etavirp` eht fo noiton evitcuder eht swollof ylesolc oot ti ecnis ,mret doog a eb ton yam 'rekniht etavirp` eht ,tcaf ni ,taht eugra ot redro ni noiton rettal eht seifilauq ezueleD hguohtla ,'rekniht etavirp` eht dna 'rosseforp cilbup` eht neewteb tcilfnoc eht si ereht ,revewoh ,draagekreiK dna ehcszteiN ekil serugif eht fo esac eht nI .)873 :7891( 'etats eht fo nam elbatirev a serugif yraretil lla fo` ,ehteoG htiw tcilfnoc s'tsielK yb ot detsetta si enihcam raw yraretil eht ,txeN .)773 :7891( '!yltcerid erom sthguoht ruoy sserpxe ot )silasrevinU oitatigoC( dohtem a ta evirra lliw uoy noos neht ,esiver uoy fI !kroW !kroW` :'.A.A ervuap` ot ecivda sih gnivig ni noitatiseh on dah eh dna desinagro ylroop dna elbisneherpmoc -ni duatrA dnuof eH .'srettel fo cilbuper eht ni ecnirp a` rof flesmih Á ekatsim ot citirc tsal ro tsrif eht ton saw ezueleD ot gnidrocca ereiviR Á ,etats eht fo nam a ton hguohtlA .|.)691 :6991( .ogE ro fleS a fo ecnerehoc eht ni flesym revocer I nac ron ,flesym niatnoc regnol on I .gnimoceb fo ssendemrofnu eht htiw decaf nehw etauqedani si mrof evitcejbus eht erehw ,flesti htiw evisnetxeoc regnol on si tcejbus eht erehw gnimoceb a ni em sevlovni ti :flesym ot em nruter ton seod epacsdnal ehT .'efil fo egassap` a fo tnemele yrev eht tub ,ecneirepxe Satan fo ycnadnuder eht ton ;ohce na fo noisacco eht naht rehtar ecneirepxe renni na si epacsdnal ehT .efil siht tcelfer ot desoppus ytilaer lanretxe tnednepedni na dna efil renni tnetsixe-erp dna suomonotua na fo taht regnol on si epacsdnal eht ot noitaler eh]T[ :)yesreJ weN ,nosretaP ni krap eht ro( epacsdnal eht ot noitaler ni yaw siht ti snialpxe ilivhcibaruoZ sio cnarF .gnimoceb rieht ni sreviecrep setallepretni taht egalbmessa Ë na si tpecrep a saerehw ,ecaps naisetraC fo mrof emos ni reviecrep a seriuqer noitpecrep A .|)685 :7991( .thgin ogacihC daorb eht edor taht elpoep eht ot sehceeps sih ,pob drah nwo s'ynneL noticed ti dna ,etagergnoc skwah -thgin eht erehw secalp eht ,srenid thgin-etal dna srab dna stnioj pirts eht otni meht htiw ciasom par siht koot yeht desrepsid dworc eht nehw dna ,ffir renni s'namedis eht ,dnab daor eht ,sruof gnidart snaicisum ekil ,togra gnihctam a setareneg mret gnals a hcihw ni zzaj nekops a gniod ,hceeps naht cisum ot resolc ,mrof-eerf gnikooc saw eh ,sevitcen -noc tuohtiw gniht a ,xatnys degdirba fo dnik a dah taht eugolonom skraM nhoJ sixty eight tnioP .)35 :3991 ezueleD( 'rehtona ot thguoht eno morf ylsseldne gnissap etaciderp a tub ,etubirtta tnatsnoc a ton si thguohT` :etubirtta na naht rehtar ,tneve na dna noitaler a si etaciderp eht rammarg euqorab s'zinbieL ni dna ,rettam dedlof nihtiw detacol noitaludom a tub ertnec a ton si fles eht ,zinbieL roF .ertnec a si fles eht hcihw ni dlrow eht fo yhpargoeg naisetraC a morf rettam dedlof fo noitpecnoc tsivitcepsrep s'zinbieL sehsiugnisid ezueleD dloF ehT nI .tcejbus eht yb detutitsnoc gnieb weiv fo tniop eht naht rehtar weiv fo tniop eht yb detutitsnoc si tcejbus eht ;weiv fo tniop a si tcejbus eht taht snaem msivitcepsrep ,daetsnI .tcejbus eht ot evitaler si noitpecrep dna egdelwonk taht aedi eht snaem ezueleD ,msiv -italer yB .msivitaler lanab dnoyeb seog hcihw msivitcepsrep a sa 'weiv fo tniop` fo ecnatropmi eht sesisahpme ezueleD ,zinbieL fo snoissucsid sih nI .'weiv fo tniop` sllac ezueleD tahw ot esolc si hcihw euqinhcet a fo esu eht yb levon eht ni deveihca osla era stceffe cinohpyloP .llab eht thguob evah yam yahS kciN mohw morf ,rotcelloc ailiba -romem llabesab a ot llab eht dlos evah yam ohw retfird manteiV-tsop a emoceb yam ,raw manteiV eht gnirud sdiar gnibmob 25-B seilf ohw ,eikcuhC .|)four±32 :4991( .aedI eht ot dnopserroc hcihw emit dna ecaps cimanyd a fo evitaerc ,tnemevom erup sa sdlofnu ti ;aedI eht ot lanretni si ecnereffid eht ,]noisserpxe fo taht[ esac rehto eht nI .emit dna ecaps fo ecnereffidni eht otni gnillaf ,tpecnoc emas eht yb detneserper stcejbo neewteb ecnereffid a si ti ;tpecnoc eht ot lanretxe ylno eb ot nekat si ecnereffid eht ,]sngis eht fo taht[ esac eno nI :noititepeR dna ecnereffiD ni desiretcarahc ezueleD taht ecnereffid fo stpecnoc etisoppo ni seil noitisoppo riehT .|)34( Ðyletercnoc hcaorppa I hcihw ,tser ta )em ot( dlrow aÐ snoisrucni ym ot tcejbus ,delbmur eh ,dlrow a si ereht flesym edistuo edistuO :senil eseht htiw snepo koob ehT .elbitpecrepmi gnimoceb sih si ssecorp eht erehw stpecrep fo yhpargoeg a gnitrahc si smailliW/nosretaP rD esuaceb lure ni ,ecselaoc tonnac weiv fo tniop elbats A .ecnecserobra diova ot hguone evitarran eht gnikaerb ,sees eh sgniht eht dna sraeh eh hceeps fo stnemgarf yarts eht sretsiger eh daetsnI .noitarran raenil ro tnetsisnoc a reffo ton seod ,lausu sa ,smailliW tuB .snoisserpmi sih gniretsiger ,krap eht hguorht gniklaw si nosretaP rD ylbisnetsO .weiv fo tniop ralugnis a niatniam ot troffe tnetsis -noc tsom 'smailliW stneserper 'kraP eht ni yadnuS` ,syaw emos nI .|Ew ezilareneg eht raluger MVS yb gnicudortni a wen noitalumrof fo eht gninrael melborp ot ekat otni tnuocca ssalc slebal sa llew sa ssalc ytilibaborp setamitse. Siht lanigiro noitalumrofer otni a citsilibaborp MVS (Pp-MVS) nac eb yltneiciffe devlos yb gnitpada gnitsixe elbixelf MVS srevlos. Eromrehtruf, siht krowemarf swolla gnivired a euqinu denrael noitciderp noitcnuf rof htob noisiced dna roiretsop ytilibaborp noitamitse gnidivorp evitatilauq dna evitatitnauq snoitciderp. Eht dohtem si tsrif detset no citehtnys atad stes ot etaulave sti seitreporp sa derapmoc htiw eht lacissalc MVS dna yzzuf-MVS. Ti si neht detaulave no a lacinilc atad tes fo cirtemarapitlum etatsorp citengam ecnanoser segami ot ssessa sti secnamrofrep ni gnitanimircsid ngineb morf tnangilam seussit. Pp-MVS si nwohs ot mrofreptuo lacissalc MVS sa llew sa eht yzzuf-MVS ni smret fo ytilibaborp snoitciderp dna noitacifissalc secnamrofrep, dna setartsnomed sti laitnetop rof eht ngised fo na tneiciffe retupmoc-dedia noisiced metsys rof etatsorp recnac sisongaid desab no cirtemarapitlum citengam ecnanoser (RM) gnigami. XeTbiB : @short articleniaf2014kernel,

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{6 .)7991( noitaicnune evitcelloc sa erutaretil ronim dna esruocsid tceridni skraM nhoJ 69 kcab secart taht moolg loohcs eht dna ,yawa tup dna pu dedlof s'taht tcaf elbispalloc emos fo gnileef eht ,gniht emas eht fo trapa lla si tI .hcnerF ekaf ni srebmun gniticer naicitsitats sih sraeh eh ,gniliaw yratilos eht sraeh eH :segdoH ssuR rotatnemmoc eht htiw detaicossa si ti ,tsrif tA .flesti epacsdnal eht otni sevlossid yllautneve tub slaudividni htiw detaicossa yllaitini si hcihw ,gnissim era taht elpoep eht rof aiglatson a ,ylohcnalem fo esnes a si ereht ,yas ot si tahT .|erutcurts eht dna lios lacol eht gnitneserper hsem tnemele etinif eht edistuo seil dleif-raf ehT .ledom eht fo trap siht ni dedulcni eb osla dluow lios eht fo noitrop lacol A .)one .giF ees( stnemele etinif lanoitnevnoc yb delledom erutcurts a fo esac eht redisnoC .stnemele etinif gnilbmessa fo hcaorppa dradnats eht htiw noitcnujnoc ni desu si ytiralimis cirtemoeg fo tpecnoc a ,it emit etercsid ta ) i t ( secirtam eslupmi-tinu noitarelecca eht enimreted oT .largetni noitulovnoc siht fo noitaluclac evitceffe na mrofrep ot woh ,nwohs eb lliw ti noitces txen eht nI .xirtam esnopser eslupmi-tinu noitarelecca eht si ) t ( erehw|elpoeP eht fo riaffA nA :erutaretiL naciremA .)forty one :4±3691( 'noitasillatsyrc fo tnemom a morf yawa ro sdrawot gnivom syawla si ,citats reven si hcihw ytilaer a hctac ot si melborp eht` ecnis ,tneve eht fo erutan citamgine eht ot detcennoc yletamitni si gniees fo melborp sihT .|six retpahC lacitirc siht ta rucco dluohs eugolaid a hcus taht feileb eht ni sledom cituenemreh rehto morf tcnitsid scitamgarp naizueleD a ekam dluow taht snoitidnoc yrev eht dnuora eugolaid evitaerc ekovorp ot tpmetta na si ti fast virus removal ,emit emas eht ta ;'cinilc yraretil` desilareneg a sa desoporp no ylrae dah ezueleD tahw fo skram citsiretcarahc eht enifed ot tpmetta nwo ym stneserper yaw emos ni noissucsid sihT .erutaretil fo noitseuq eht no sgnitirw sih lla ni elor lartnec a ypucco ohw )ralucitrap ni tsuorP dna akfaK ,ttekceB ,duatrA( sretirw nredom esoht yb skrow eht htiw detaicossa neeb evah taht gnitirw fo smelborp dna snoitseuq eht ,ralucitrap ni ,dna noisserpxe yraretil gnitaert fo rennam nwo s'ezueleD morf ward thgim ew selpicnirp eht fo emos fo noissucsid yranimilerp erom a reffo lliw I swollof tahw ni ,)tluacuoF( 'naizueleD sa nwonk eb lliw yrutnec siht yad eno` ,noitamalcorp eht morf wolf thgim taht seitilautca etanutrofnu dna etanutrof eht no gnitaluceps naht rehtar ,yltneuqesnoC .erutan nwo sti tsniaga detrevrep eb nac gnihtyna taht ytilibissop eht tuo dloh syawla tsum ew ,yroeht fo sesu eht senimreted hcihw esuac tneiciffe na gnimoceb si 'gnitekram` fo elpicnirp eht erehw yadot ymedaca eht ni ,revewoh ;suoivbo oot lla mees thgim snoitseuq evoba eht ot esnopser eht ,irattauG htiw noitaroballoc ni nettirw skrow esoht yllaicepse dna ,sgnitirw s'ezueleD fo tneduts yna roF ?)572 :4991 hciz -doG( erutaretil fo 'enilpicsid eht fo srenoititcarp sa sevlesmeht yfitnedi dna desingocer era ohw slaudividni fo tes a` fo ytirgetni eht dna stcejbo yraretil fo dleif eht fo ytilibats evitaler eht gnivreserp ,seigolodohtem dna selyts lacitirc fo msilarulp a ni srehto gnoma hcaorppa eno sa dootsrednu ,'yroeht yraretil fo loohcs naizueleD` a ekil gnihtemos enigami ew dluoc ,revoeroM ?krow fo ydob ro rohtua na fo noitatneserper lacirotsih eht ot lanretxe tniop a morf syawla hcaorppa rehtar tub ,msicitirc fo dleif eht ot etubirt neve ro noitnetta on yap ot mees sretirw no seiratnemmoc nwo s'ezueleD taht ,sdrow rehto ni ,'elyts` fo noitseuq a ylpmis ti sI .doirep nredom eht ni msicitirc lanoitutitsni fo ecnanimod eht yb denimreted neeb evah erutaretil fo sesu eht woh tsniaga 'enihcam raw` fo dnik a sa egreme dna erutaretil fo ecitcarp eht fo snoitidnoc eht retla yllacidar yam egasu lacinilc a taht tseggus ot ekil dluow I ,erofereht ;yadot yduts yraretil fo snoitutitsni eht ni seviecer netfo noitseuq siht noitatneserper lacitirc eht 'edistuo tniop a morf` gnitirw fo noitseuq eht hcaorppa ew taht eriuqer yam ,revewoh ,'esu` siht fo noitasilaer ehT .)641 :0991( 'sselesnes dna sselefil niamer dluow noitatneserper hcihw tuohtiw ,noitatneserper fo ''esu`` a si ereht` ,setirw ezueleD sa ,sdrow rehto nI .|Owt smhtirogla era desoporp, tsrif na detarelecca lamixorp hcaorppa rof gnivlos eht xevnoc smelborp, dnoces a dethgiewer l1 emehcs ot sserdda eht non-xevnoc snoitaziraluger. Ew tcudnoc evisnetni stnemirepxe no enin stesatad morf Rotel three.0 dna Rotel four.0 aroproc. Laciremun stluser wohs taht eht esu fo non-xevnoc snoitaziraluger ew esoporp sdael ot erom ytisraps ni eht gnitluser sledom elihw noitciderp ecnamrofrep si devreserp. Eht rebmun fo serutaef si desaerced yb pu ot a rotcaf fo xis derapmoc ot eht l1 noitaziraluger. Ni noitidda, eht erawtfos si ylcilbup elbaliava no eht bew. XeTbiB : @report7 .)fifty six/fifteen :7891 ezueleD( rehto hcae htiw spihsnoitaler evitcnujnoc otni thguorb eb ot 'stneve ,stceffa ,sgnimoceb ,seirotirret ,seiticilpitlum ,snoitalupop` swolla hcihw noitalletsnoc a sa ,si taht ,egalbmessa na sa deweiv eb ot flesti sah gnitirw naciremA-olgnA na fo sralpmexe sa serugif os ro nezod owt eseht fo gnipuorg s'ezueleD neht ,'hcnerF` eht morf trapa meht stes dna 'snaciremA-olgnA` eht skram taht ± denrecnoc si ezueleD erehw lacitilop dna lacihte ylbacirtxeni osla tub ,'lacihposolihp` ,sgniht rehto gnoma ,era taht segalbmessa ± segalbmessa tnevni ot yticapac elbitsuahxeni rieht si ti fI .

{)405( .gnirif rof deidaer gnieb sesaltA dna snatiT ± laernu ylbakramer ti dnif yeht emit emas eht ta tub gnineppah yllautcaf lla s'ti dna edam reve eivom enirambus yreve morf eugolaid s'ti ,evid evid evid ekil ,aes ot gnittup sbus siraloS dna camrat eht revo gnilbmur srebmob CAS htiw ereht tuo no gniog s'taht gniht labolg latot eht ot noitisnart eht ekam meht pleh ot ynneL dedeen lla yeht dnA :lautca eht fo ytilanoitcif elbahcaorppanu dna egnarts eht ot ecneidua sih sesopxe ecurB ,elpmaxe roF .)6 :7991 etnaS( 'ecnatsid ot ycaidemmi morf evrews dipar a` setalucitra eh ,yaw siht nI .erutuf lautriv a ot evom neht dna ecneidua sih fo seirrow etaidemmi eht etalucitra ot mih selbane suineg yrotasiv -orpmi s'ecurB taht ni ,'dleif fo htped` yraretil fo tros a evah yeht taht setacidni osla eh ,revewoH .|snoisnetxE sti dna emaG ehT :tnevE ehT .sevitcepsrep fo yticilpitlum a yb tneve na sa detutitsnoc si emag eht rehtar tub ,emag eht no sevitcepsrep evitaler evah ton od levon eht ni sretcarahc ehT .)sixty three( 'klat si od ot sah eh llA .sbrev dna snuon otni drawtuo nepo ot smees dleif ehT .ekim eht revo dehcnuh si eH` :segdoH ssuR rotatnemmoc eht elpmaxe rof ekaT .ytiralc fo enoz llams a sesserpxe evitcepsrep hcae dna ,sevitcepsrep fo seires a morf detcurtsnoc si hcihw tneve na flesti si dlrowrednU ni emag llabesab ehT .rennam erucsbo dna desufnoc a ni desserpxe si hcihw dlrow eht fo ytilatot eht ot noitaler ni ylraelc sesserpxe laudividni eht taht dlrow eht fo noiger eht sa denifed ,erofereht ,si weiv fo skraM nhoJ 88 )881 :4991 irattauG dna ezueleD( .|six .)amihsoriH s'sianseR dna saruD ,onereC otineB ro bahA s'ellivleM ,artsuhtaraZ s'ehcszteiN ,zneL s'renhcuB( krow s'ezueleD ni 'srosrucerp erbmos` eseht fo selpmaxe erom sseltnuoc era ereht dnA .suriv a fo smret ni seimene lanretni sti senifed taht etats nredom eht fo 'rewop-oib` eht yb dehsaelnu aionarap eht fo smitciv sa eiknuj eht dna ,lauxesomoh eht ,neila eht fo noitailif terces eht desongaid shguorruB .mrof-etats eht fo noitutitsni eht dna wal fo egalbmessa lacilobaid eht hcraeser ot rennam a 'K` fo eganosrep lanoitcif eht hguorht derevocsid akfaK .noitautis lainoloc sti ni yrotsih naeporuE fo Canine eht gniydorap dna yrarbil naeporuE eht gninrutrevo fo erudecorp cimoc a hguorht tsap eht htiw pihsnoitaler gnisinoloc a gnipacse fo snaem elbissop a derevocsid ,elpmaxe rof ,segroB .noziroh eht no sraeppa taht efiL fo egalbmessa wen eht yb decnuonna erutuf eht sdrawot seog trebmaL ggerG 651 ,'elahw etihw` s'ellivleM ,'worraps-degnah` s'cziworbmoG ,'enieledam` s'tsuorP ,elpmaxe rof( tceffe yraretil eht ot cificeps ytilauq yrotanic -ullah niatrec a raeb yeht hguohtlA .)five :7991 ezueleD( 'slavretni sti ni ,egaugnal fo secitsretni eht ni sraeh ro sees retirw eht taht saedI elbatirev tub ,seisatnaf ton period snoisiv esehT` .elbissop sekam enola egaugnal hcihw egaugnal fo edistuo eht rehtar tub ,egaugnal edistuo ton si taht timil a ,egaugnal fo timil eht hguorht skaerb dna mia sti seveihca ssecorp yraretil eht nehw ylno raeppa saedi eseht ,revewoh ,sebircsed rehtruf ezueleD sA .egaugnaL nihtiw egassap sti ni ssecorp yraretil eht ot cificeps era taht gniraeh dna gniees fo smrof eht period eseht ;snoitidua dna snoisiv sllac ezueleD taht ssecorp eht morf egreme saedi ,ssecorp siht fo tluser a sA Â .) emrallaM ,sgnimmuc ,uaeneuQ ,naleC ,namyrreB ,elpmaxe rof( ''stceffe lacitammarg-a`` dna ''noisserpxe lacipyt-a`` sdrawot senilcni taht gniremmats citsiugnil-non a egaugnal nihtiw setaerc erutaretil nredom ,ylgnidroccA .egaugnal nihtiw egaugnal egnarts a revocnu ot sretirw nredom fo ycnednet trevo dna tnecer eht ni laitnetop period hcihw ecnatsiser fo seitilibissop sti ylralucitrap ,)ytitnedi ,noitamrofni ,noitacinummoc ,krow( evitagen eht fo secrof eht ot detanidrobus gnieb saw ti nehw emit a ni erutaretil fo noitseuq eht fo gnigelivirp nrobbuts s'tluacuoF ot hcum sewo taht sisylana na ni secitcarp yraretil nredom fo tcepsa siht setacol ezueleD .|4 )erbmoS el ( erbmoS eht :thgil fo snemiger tnereffid dnopserroc txet s'azonipS fo tcepsa dna dlrow hcae oT .koob htfiF eht dna ,snoitartsnomed eht dna snoitisoporp eht ,ailohcs eht :scihtE eht fo txet eht fo stneutitsnoc tabmoloC erreiP erdnA Â 03 dna pihsnoitaler riehT .|3 .stpecrep dna stceffa llac retal lliw irattauG dna ezueleD tahw fo sutats eht ot snoitpecrep dna snoissap ,snoitceffa erucsbo eseht desiar tsrif hcihw hcosaM dna edaS fo noitaerc 'lacitirc` eht observed ti ,sdrow rehto nI .)01 :b9891( 'hcosaM dna edaS fo skrow eht ot reporp seulav yraretil eht morf elbarapes ton era msihcosam dna msidas fo seitic -ificeps eht` ,revoerom ,dna 'tra fo riaffa na syawla si ygolotamotpmys` trebmaL ggerG 831 ,ttekceB ,duatrA( erutaretil morf nward period ozihcs eht fo erugif eht fo sevitatneserper yralpmexe eht fo ynam ecnis ,cinerhpozihcs eht fo ytitne lacinilc eht morf dehsiugnitsid ylprahs eb tsum hcihw erugif a ,'ozihcs eht` ,yleman ± seirogetac lacitylana sti fo lasrever lanretni na hguorht delaever eb ylno nac hcihw flesti sisylanaohcysp fo edistuo eht si ti sa )ecneics ro ,yhposolihp ,ygoloporhtna sa hcus egdelwonk fo hcnarb ro esruocsid rehtona ,elpmaxe rof( flesti sisylanaohcysp edistuo ylirassecen ton si edistuo tniop siht ,tnemetats txen eht ni nialpxe irattauG dna ezueleD sA|)61±fifty one :a0991 ezueleD( .etacilpmi ot si evlovni ot ,evlove ot si etacilpxe oT .ecnesse lanrete s'doG ,nrut rieht ni ,evlovni meht ot dnopserroc taht saedi eht os ,ti gnisserpxe sa llew sa Canine fo tpecnoc eht evlovni sedoM .ti evlovni yeht ereht ,ti etacilpxe yeht ereh :ecnatsbus fo ecnesse eht sserpxe ylno ton setubirttA .]'reuqilpxe`[ ti etacilpxe ot dna ]'reppolevne`[ evlovni ot tub ,denifed si tahw fo erutan fifty one sngiS dna ezueleD )two±181 ,sixty five :0991( .ecneidebo ruo sdnuorg ti dna ,tnemdnammoc a seifingis syawla ti ;muiporp a ot sehcatta syawla ngis A .desserpxe dna noisserpxe fo taht ,deifingis dna ngis fo taht :snoitaler suoenegoreteh owt hsiugnitsid ot rO .rehtruf dehsup sniamod owt hsiugnitsid ot troffe eht saw reven :noisserpxe dna noitaleveR :sdrow nwo s'ezueleD nI .|Eht euqinhcet fo gnivired eht lamitpo noissimsnart rof a nevig lartceps htdiwdnab si a lacissalc deziraluger citardauq noitaziminim fo seitisnetni, tub raenil snoitazimitpo nac eb desu sa llew. Gniziminim eht detargetni ytisnetni no eht erutrepa fo eht epocselet ro rof detceles snoiger fo eht lacof enalp sdael ot ylthgils tnereffid snoissimsnart rof eht retlucco. Rof eht lacof enalp noitazimitpo, eht gnitluser laudiser ytisnetni si detartnecnoc dniheb eht lacirtemoeg egami fo eht retlucco, ni a dnilb noiger rof eht noitavresbo fo na tenalpoxe, dna eht amount fo dnuorgkcab laudiser thgilrats semoceb yrev wol edistuo siht egami. Yllanif, ew edivorp a ecnarelot sisylana rof eht tnemngila fo eht retlucco ot eht epocselet hcihw osla srovaf eht lacof enalp noitazimitpo. Siht snaem taht epocselet stesffo fo a wef sretemiced od ton ylgnorts ecuder eht ycneiciffe fo eht retlucco. XeTbiB : @short article{flamary2014starshade,|citcelaiD dna legeH ,setarcoS .noitatneserper ruo dnoyeb aedI na fo thgieh eht ot sevlesruo dnoyeb su sekat tpecnoc taht woh etartsnomed ot ylno ,esu ew taht tpecnoc a sekat eugolaid citarcoS a fo tnemevom cinori ehT .nwo sti fo ecrof dna tnemevom a sah tpecnoc eht taht snaem sihT .dias sah suhcamysarhT tahw fo gninaem eht gnidlofnu setarcoS yb tub ,setarcoS yb dereffo tnetnoc evitisop yna yb ton ,snoitinifed sih egnahc ot dellepmoc si suhcamysarhT .meht ekat lliw tpecnoc taht erehw wollof ot elba era srotucolretni sih dna setarcoS ,esu rieht dnoyeb seil taht gninaem a evah stpecnoc taht gnitpecca yB .egatnavda rieht wonk ohw esoht sa llew sa rorre ni era ohw esoht ,citarcomed sa llew sa lacinnaryt period ohw esoht naem tsum eh neht 'regnorts` drow eht sesu suhcamysarhT nehW .tra taht fo ecitcarp eht naht rehto dne na si ereht taht ,seralced setarcoS ,naem tsum eh neht 'tra` drow eht sesu suhcam -ysarhT nehW .tpecnoc eht ot tnemtimmoc niatrec a hguorht detceffe si eugolaid eht fo tnemevom sihT .)395( 'mrof fo slasrever` fo seires a hguorht suhcamysarhT gnidael setarcoS htiw seunitnoc eugolaid ehT koorbeloC erialC 801 )93 :7791 legeH( .yaw rehto emos ni ti dnats -rednu dna ,noitisoporp eht ot kcab og ot gniwonk ruo slepmoc gninaem ruo fo noitcerroc siht dna ;naem ot tnaem ew naht rehto gnihtemos tnaem ew taht ecneirepxe yb nrael eW .noinipo siht dna edutitta siht syortsed tnetnoc lacihposolihp eht tuB .gniwonk drawot edutitta lausu eht sa llew sa ,sniatbo noitaler etaciderp-tcejbus lausu eht taht eveileb ot eno sdael ,noitisoporp a si ti ecnis ,noitisoporp lacihposolihp ehT :)seventy three :7791( noitaler dna ecnereffid rieht ni smret owt eht setutitsnoc taht ytitnedi dna ecnereffid fo noitaler eht stceffe 'si` eht rehtar ;smret gnitsixe-erp owt neewteb knil a tsuj ton si 'si` eht noitisoporp )'lacitamehtam` naht rehtar( evitaluceps eht nI .)52 :7791 legeH( setubirtta sti dna dnuorg a neewteb noitcnitsid eht stpecca ylerem noitisoporp etaciderp/tcejbus dradnats a fo 'si` eht ,tsartnoc yB .gnidlofnu lautpecnoc fo tca na sa flesti sesingocer tub etaciderp a ot tcejbus a knil ylevissap ton seod 'noitisoporp evitaluceps` a fo 'si` ehT .laer lautpecnoc -erp emos dedlofnu tpecnoc eht hguoht sa ,ecnatsbus gnitsixe ydaerla emos ot setaciderp lanoitinifed hcatta ylerem ton seod ti tpecnoc a senifed yhposolihp nehw ,legeH roF .ytivitca lautpecnoc naht rehto gnihton sa flesti sesingocer ti more info here nehw ytirutam sehcaer yhposolihP .stpecnoc revocsid ro dlrow eht ot stpecnoc ylppa ton seod ti taht esilaer yhposolihp lliw tiripS htiw ylnO .tsew eht fo ygoloelet eht edulcnoc nac tirips etulosbA fo tpecnoc eht ylnO .yrareniti lacirotsih dna reporp a sah tpecnoc eht ,revewoh ,legeH roF .noitpursid dna ecnereffid ,lawener fo rewop gni -taeper-reve eht sserpxe yeht ;lanrete period stpecnoC .ylemit ron ,dednuorg ron ,denimreted rehtien era yeht :stneve period snoitaerc hcus irattauG dna ezueleD rof tuB .stpecnoc fo noitaerc eht si yhposolihP .|)381 :8891 smailliW( Ðseniv sselfael meht rednu sevael nworb ,daed htiw seert llams dna sehsub fo ffuts yggiwt ,gnidnatspu ,dekrof ,hsilprup hsidder eht daor eht gnola llA :sees eh tahw sebircsed dna 'latipsoh suoigatnoc` eht ot gnivird si ,nosretaP rD fo noisrev ylrae na ,rotarran eht erehw llA dna gnirpS fo gninepo eht si smeop ylrae 'smailliW fo suomaf tsom eht fo enO|Gnizisrevo eht lanretni retlucco secudorp a ralimis tceffe tub sdnet ot edulcxe snoitavresbo yrev esolc ot eht bmil. Ew edivorp a hparg taht swolla ylpmis gnitamitse eht ecnamrofrep sa a noitcnuf fo sezis fo eht lanretni retlucco dna Toyl pots. XeTbiB : @write-up1 .msiciotS dna msizonipS ,msiciripme hsitirB :stnemevom lacihposolihp htiw ytiniffa evitcele s'erutaretil naciremA-olgnA morf sesira eerht remrof eht revo rettal eht fo ytiroirepus eht dne eht ni taht mialc eht naht gniugirtni erom enon spahrep ,erutaretil 'naciremA-olgnA` dna hcnerF gnitsartnoc snoitisoporp elbakramer spahrep dna gnitseretni fo rebmun a secnavda ,)7891 ezueleD( 'erutaretiL naciremA-olgnA fo ytiroirepuS eht nO` sa detalsnart yasse-weivretni sih ni ,ezueleD selliG

{)522 :3691( .egreme lliw erutuf eht fo gninrael eht hcihw fo tuo best gnihtees eht dnuof sah eh litnu no og tsum eH .seitilaer sti ecalp tsrif eht ni period noitan a fo shturt eht taht esilaer tsum tra fo krow citnehtua eht etaerc ot sehsiw ohw lautcelletni evitan eht trebmaL ggerG 051 dna ezueleD( 'noitaicnune fo snoitidnoc evitcelloc eht sedecerp ohw rolehcab a yb ''pu nekat`` si ti nehw yraretil si tnemetats a :noitinifed a neve si siht` ,revoeroM .)48 :6891 irattauG dna ezueleD( 'noitaic -nune evitcelloc eht fo esac ralucitrap a si noitaicnune laudividni tsom eht` taht ,)flooW ro ellivleM sa hcus( llew sa sretirw rehto fo noitautis eht ebircsed nac hcihw tub ,tnemaciderp s'akfaK ot cificeps noticed hcihw noitautis siht gninrecnoc setirw ezueleD .)941 :8491 akfaK( 'elpoep a fo naht yrotsih yraretil fo nrecnoc a ssel` ,si taht ,llew sa evitcelloc yletaidemmi si 'etavirp` dellac-os eht ,erofereht ,dna ,evitcelloc eht fo taht ot lautriv si retirw eht fo noitisop eht taht esnes siht ni si tI .noitcnitxe fo taerht eht sraeb tnelis gniniamer fo evitanretla eht erehw dna ,'fleseno gniyfislaf` fo ro ,layarteb-fles fo gnileef eht ti htiw sgnirb gnikaeps fo tca yrev eht erehw ,nwo s'eno eb reven yam dna ton si taht egaugnal a ,egaug -nal egnarts a gnitibahni fo ecneirepxe ynnacnu eht ekove ot deifilauq eb tsum 'edutilos` fo tpecnoc eht yhw dna ,ezueleD rof riaffa etavirp a yaw on ni si sretirw niatrec fo edutilos eht yhw si sihT .gnissim period ohw elpoep eht fo noitautis eht ot yldnuoforp tsom detaler si retirw eht fo edutilos eht ,ezueleD ot gnidrocca ,akfaK fo esac eht ot gninruteR .evoL fo laog tsehgih eht sa ,senitreblA elbissop eht lla 'gniwonk` fo ,eno hcae gnirutpac fo nalp suoiriled dna elbissopmi eht :erised fo egami eht dnim sih otni snrub hcihw edutilos fo ecneirepxe eht si sihT .naeco etinifni na fo sevaw ekil rehtona eno nopu gnikaerb hcae ,senitreblA rehto dnasuoht a ,enitreblA rehtona seil syawla ereht ,enitreblA fo ecaf eht dniheb ,)egatsoh reh gnidloh fo tniop eht ot neve( mih raen reh sward eh woh rettam on ro ,enitreblA ot semoc eh esolc woh rettam on taht tcaf eht yb detnuah si lecraM ,tsuorP fo slevon eht ni ,suhT .)seventeen :6891( 'erised fo senihcam eht lla ot detcennoc eb ot dna enola eb ot htob serised erised tsehgih eht` ,etirw irattauG dna ezueleD sA .enitreblA htiw lecraM ro ,anigeR htiw draagekreiK fo elpmaxe eht ni sa evol fo esruocsid eht ni desserpxe si ,edutilos lanoitpecxe na fo noitidnoc eht tuoba sgnirb hcihw ,gnignol ro erised siht netfO .|ervueo tnos seétucsid, ne reilucitrap sel stcepsa sfitaler a al noitcelés ed sruetpac te l'egassitnerppa itlum-|)81±71 :6891( .nrecnoc s'elpoep eht si erutaretil :ueilim eht ni erehwesle gnikcal si taht noitaicnune evitcelloc fo snoitidnoc eht llif ot denimreted si enola enihcam yraretil eht esuaceb tub snosaer lacigoloedi rof lla ta ton ,emoc -ot-enihcam yranoitulover a rof yaler eht semoceb suht enihcam yraretil ehT ,etirw irattauG dna ezueleD sa ,tuB .)ecaps nepo sti( aroga sti fo erutan )suolubaf ro( 'yranigami` eht yb detnuah syawla si ecnetsixe esohw 'cilbup ronim` a ,noitaicnune evitcelloc a fo noiger laitnesse-non dna ywodahs eht semussa erutaretil fo ydob a ± sdrow ynam os ni ,'ytilaer sredro` hcihw ± ecnerefer dna thgiew noitaicnune sevig hcihw ,'erehps cilbup` eht fo noitamrof nairatirojam tcnitsid a fo ecnesba eht nI .|)6±545( .fo nuf edam ynneL sgniht ± seissup tsihdduB htiw scainamohpmyn das dna setiykstorT terces ,eiriarp zzaj eht no places kcurt tpewsniar dnasuoht a ni eeffoc fo spuc revo dehcnuh tas elpoep erehw ,derevooH ragdE .J dna denizagam-emiT ,snoitaroproc tobor dna skcatsekoms fo ecalp ytliug eht ,aciremA fo rolauqs larom eht ot ecnerefer tseidnah rieht observed bmob ehT .|Ni siht repap, ew esoporp a deziraluger desivrepusnu lamitpo noitatropsnart ledom ot mrofrep eht tnemngila fo eht snoitatneserper ni eht ecruos dna tegrat sniamod. Ew nrael a noitatropsnart nalp gnihctam htob sFDP, hcihw sniartsnoc dellebal selpmas ni eht ecruos niamod ot niamer esolc gnirud tropsnart. Siht yaw, ew tiolpxe ta eht emas emit eht wef delebal noitamrofni ni eht ecruos dna snoitubirtsid fo eht input/observation selbairav devresbo ni htob sniamod. Stnemirepxe ni yot dna gnignellahc laer lausiv noitatpada selpmaxe wohs eht tseretni fo eht dohtem, taht yltnetsisnoc smrofreptuo etats fo eht tra sehcaorppa. XeTbiB : @short article{courty2016optimal,|Dnoces, eht stceffe fo gnizis eht lanretni retlucco dna eht Toyl pots era dezylana. Siht krow osla seilppa ot eht lacissalc Toyl hparganoroc enola dna eht lanretxe ralos hparganoroc.|)noitalsnart ym ;33 :4891 wonibaR/sufyerD yb detouq( .noitcurtsed nwo sih ot ecnerefer ni ylno ]. . .[ seye nwo yrev sih ot ecneics fo tcejbo na sa flesmih etutitsnoc dluoc nam nretseW .htaed fo tnemom siht hguorht ssap ot dah laudividni eht no dleh ti esruocsid cifitneics tsrif eht taht erutluc ruo rof evisiced eb ylniatrec lliw tI :smret gniwollof eht ni cinilc eht fo htrib eht desiretcarahc tluacuoF ,deednI .|Ot siht dne, ew redisnoc a tsaf dna raenil reifissalc, ssalcitlum citsigol noitacifissalc, dna wohs taht htiw a doog noitatneserper (eht sretlif derevocsid), hcus a elpmis reifissalc nac hcaer ta tsael etats fo eht tra secnamrofrep. Ew ylppa eht desoporp evitca tes renrael ni ruof lartcepsrepyh egami noitacifissalc smelborp, gnidulcni larutlucirga dna nabru noitacifissalc ta tnereffid snoituloser, sa llew sa ladomitlum atad. Ew osla esoporp a lacihcrareih gnittes, hcihw swolla ot etareneg erom xelpmoc sknab fo serutaef taht nac retteb ebircsed eht seitiraenilnon tneserp ni eht atad. XeTbiB : @write-upNi siht esac, ksatitlum gninrael spleh ni gnigarevel atad yticracs eussi gnidleiy ot erom tsubor sreifissalc. Rof siht esoprup, ew evah decudortni a reziraluger taht secudni htob rosnes noitceles dna reifissalc seitiralimis. Eht tnereffid noitaziraluger sehcaorppa period derapmoc no eerht PRE stesatad gniwohs eht tseretni fo dexim-mron noitaziraluger ni smret fo rosnes noitceles. Eht ksatitlum sehcaorppa era detaulave nehw a llams rebmun fo gninrael selpmaxe era elbaliava gnidleiy ot tnacifingis ecnamrofrep stnemevorpmi yllaicepse rof stcejbus gnimrofrep ylroop. XeTbiB : @report)22 :7991( .tac a tuohtiw elims eht ekil drows a tuohtiw hsalf a ,drows eht fo hsalf eht tub ,drows eht ton :shtped eht morf 'desserpxe` erup a ,htrae eht revo tsim a ekil ecafrus eht ot esir laeroprocni na tel yehT .snoissap dna snoitca deliorbme rieht evoba ,seidob dexim eht evoba enihs erutxim tuohtiw stneve eruP .gniwardhtiw ro gnineppah rehtie hsinif reven taht seititne ,stneve erup fo 'ecnaidaR` eht ekil si esnesnon ecafruS :onurB dna eivlyS s'llorraC fo 'esnesnon ecafrus` eht gnirimda ,lacinilC dna lacitirC syassE ni llorraC siweL ot snruter ezueleD .eripsa tsum tra hcihw ot tnemevom lanosrepmi eht si dna ,'ecnenammi erup` yaw siht ni si tneve erup ehT .)one :0991( emit emas eht ta ]snes[ snoitcerid htob gnimriffa dna tneserp eht gnidule ,gnimoceb fo xodarap eht si sihT .semoceb ehs naht rellams dna saw ehs naht regral semoceb ecilA .

stejus. Ec ertipahc elliatéd tnemelagé al noitadilav d'enu ehcorppa d'egassitnerppa, tnaulcni sel setneréffid

ygolodamoN naciremA nA .egdelwonk wen fo snoitarugifnoc gnikirts rof dees eht sraeb hcihw fo hcae ,stnemgarf ynit dnasuoht a otni srevihs taht egaugnal a ot sdael amount -orcam eht no ylralucitrap ,sgninnigeb hserf htiw ,srekaeps htiw gnitegdiF .tniopweiv etisoppo eht ekat smailliW dna ezueleD .)fifty one :0791 smailliW( 'ytilirets ot dael sgninnigeb wen tnassecni dna sgninnigeb wen ot syawla sdael weiv fo stniop htiw tegdif ot` :krow sih fo euqitirc 'snevetS ecallaW setouq smailliW ,lleH ni aroK ot ecaferp eht nI .rettuts tsav eno ot pu flesti snepo daetsni tub '?naem ti seod tahw ,coD ,zeeG` ,noitseuq eht srewsna reven ti ;ytitnedi fo ytiralc eht otni spans reven tI .noituloser on seveihca tub noitarefilorp dna noititeper hguorht gnidliub ylwols ,strats dna stif ni sdeecorp meop ehT .ytinu dnarg a otni erehoc ot liaf yeht ,secnetnes lacit -ammarg yllareneg dna ,tcerid ,elpmis htiw etelper si nosretaP elihW .elohw a sa egaugnal fo gnirettuts a si ti ;shtap fo noitarefilorp a dna ytilibinrecsidni fo enoz a htob setaerc secneuqes labrev fo noitercca ehT .gninaem srohcna tI .tniop a sah ecnetnes ticilpxe ehT .esruocsid naizueleD fo DNA ,DNA ,DNA eht si sihT .'secneuqes labrev yb` :esarhp elddim eht si ,meop eritne eht fo citamelbme dna ,egassap siht ni yek si tahW .gninaem fo gnimoceb eht rof ,esnes fo noitcudorp eht rof seitil -ibissop suonigitrev pu snepo ,esnesnon gnitaerc naht rehtar ,dna muirb -iliuqe siht stespu ecnetnes ticilpxe eht gnilliK .'muirbiliuqe ot esolc ro ,muirbiliuqe ni metsys suoenegomoh` a eb tsum egaugnal mohw rof ,nem -loohcs eht yb decudorp seiradnuob eht rof niadsid a erahs yeht ylraelC .naizueleD ylluf tsom sa debircsed eb dluoc noitisopmoc dna egaugnal fo esnes sih erehw tniop eht si sihT .)881 :2991 smailliW( 'nemloohcs yb tes sllaf-daed :secnetnes lacitammarg ton tub ,secnetneS .secneuqes labrev yb ± gninaem ruo dnapxe dnA ?kniht uoy t'nod ,ecnetnes ticilpxe eht lliK` :gnirutcarf siht ni tnerehni ecneloiv eht pu sekat osla smailliW .gniwonk fo sedom wen dna egdelwonk wen fo ecruos a semoceb taht noitalucitra elbuod eht gnidnuofnoc dna atarts evisrucsid ynam ssorca gnittuc ,erutcarf fo sciteop a si tI .

six .'hcnerF` naht 'naciremA-olgnA` erom elpicnirp ni gnieb sa ezueleD yb dedrager era teneG dna duatrA nemhcnerF 'tnaived` eht ,ylesrevnoc ,sa tsuj ,'hcnerF` sa yfilauq ylbamuserp erofereht dluow dna ,ecnarF elotanA niruS htenneK 071 yaw eht go to website ni ,rehto hcae ot stceffa timsnart dna elgnimmoc hcihw ,seidob dna sgniht fo etats a si enO .

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